What should I do if I think I have a urinary infection?
If you have pain in the bladder area (pictured below), pain when passing urine, a need to urinate frequently or urine that is dark or strong-smelling, especially if you have a fever of 38ºC or more, you should contact your GP for further advice
These symptoms are all non-specific. They can be caused by many other conditions such as sexually-transmitted infection, vaginal thrush (in women), chemical irritants (soap & deodorants), stones (in the kidney, ureter or bladder), interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer or inflammation in the prostate gland (prostatitis).
It is, therefore, important that you see your GP to arrange appropriate investigations to establish the exact cause of your symptoms. Failure to treat a bladder infection promptly can cause infection to spread to the kidneys. In severe cases, this may result in blood poisoning (septicaemia).
What are the facts about urinary infection?
- Most urine infections are caused by bacteria which come from your bowel;
- In women, the urethra (water pipe) is very close to the anus making it easy for bacteria to reach the bladder and cause infection;
- Most women have at least one attack of urinary infection during their lifetime and 20% of women suffer repeated attacks. This is more likely in women who are pregnant, sexually-active or postmenopausal;
- Cystitis in men and children is more serious because it is often caused by underlying problems such as an enlarged prostate, prostatitis or inherited abnormalities;
- Mild urinary infections usually clear within a few days and may not always require treatment with antibiotics;
- Untreated, more severe infections can involve the kidneys and may even spread into the bloodstream; and
- Recurrent urinary infections in women can often be managed by simple, "self-help" measures.
What should I expect when I visit my GP?
Your GP should work through a recommended scheme of assessment for suspected urinary infection. This will normally include one or all of the following:
1. A full history
Your GP will take a full urological history with special attention to previous urinary infections, periods of dehydration, your sexual activity, any intake of acidic or spicy foods and any relevant past medical problems.
2. A physical examination
A general physical examination, including rectal examination (in men) and vaginal examination (in women) will normally be performed. Your blood pressure will be measured as part of this assessment.
3. Additional tests
The usual tests performed are:
a. General blood tests
The actual tests performed will be left to your GP's discretion. It is usual to measure kidney function and to check the blood cells for anaemia or other problems.
b. Urine tests
A simple dipstick test of the urine may confirm that an infection. It is likely that urine will also be sent to the laboratory for culture to confirm any infection and to find out which antibiotics need to be used (culture & sensitivity assessment, pictured).
c. Other specific tests
If you have any discharge (from the penis or vagina), swabs may be taken for culture.Your GP may also arrange an ultrasound scan of your kidneys and bladder. This is not needed for a first infection in a woman but is usually performed for:
- recurrent infections in women (more than 3 attacks per year);
- all infections in men;
- infections which have spread to the kidneys;
- pregnant women;
- patients with known neurological problems;
- patients with known abnormalities of the urinary tract; and
- patients taking drugs which suppress the immune system.
If you fall into any of these groups, your GP will then arrange a formal referral to a urologist for further investigation. This may involve examination of the bladder under local anaesthetic (flexible cystoscopy) as well as the investigations mentioned above.
Download a leaflet about flexible cystoscopy
What treatments are available for this problem?
Mild urinary infections can sometimes be cured by drinking plenty (6-8 glasses) of water daily and relieving any discomfort with simple painkillers (aspirin, paracetamol). It is, however, best to see your GP for advice especially if this is your first urinary infection. If your symptoms are clearly caused by sexual intercourse (so-called "honeymoon cystitis"), you should refrain from sex until your infection has cleared completely.
If your symptoms worsen despite these measures, you should contact your GP immediately.
More severe infections usually require treatment with antibiotics. Your GP will normally prescribe an antibiotic (pictured) on a "best guess" policy, taking into account any allergies you may have. The drug given initially may need to be changed. This will depend on the results of laboratory culture and on the sensitivity of any bacteria to the antibiotic already prescribed.
Even if no bacteria are grown from your urine sample, there is good evidence that antibiotics can be helpful in curing your symptoms.
You will normally be asked to provide a further urine specimen 7-14 days after you have completed your course of antibiotics. This is important to ensure that there is no infection remaining and that any abnormal white cells or red cells in the urine have been eliminated. If they have not, further investigations may be needed to exclude problems such as stones, bladder cancer or tuberculosis.
Surgery is rarely indicated for urinary infection unless there is an underlying causative condition which requires surgical relief.
- In patients (especially children) shown to have reflux of infected urine back from the bladder to the kidneys, surgery may be recommended to stop the reflux; and
- In some women after the menopause, ultrasound shows poor bladder emptying with a large residual urine and inspection of the bladder with stretching of the neck of the bladder under a brief general anaesthetic may be helpful. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) using tablets, creams or pessaries may be prescribed after the procedure, to prevent the problem from recurring.
Download a leaflet about stretching the neck of the bladder
How can I prevent further attacks of infection?
If you suffer from repeated attacks of urinary infection, especially in women, your GP or urologist may recommend that you take low-dose antibiotics for 3-6 months
As an alternative to long-term antibiotics, you may find it helpful to take cranberry juice or tablets. Cranberry preparations have been shown, scientifically, to reduce recurrent infections. Some patients find tablets more palatable than juice.
There are also a number of measures you can do for yourself to prevent further infections. Download a leaflet about self-help measures to prevent recurrent cystitis in women