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Publications, Presentations and Social Media



The latest (May 2021) Urolink newsletter can be accessed by clicking here.


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Social Media

Click on the Twitter logo (left) to view the Urolink Twitter feed. You should read the GMC guidance and advice from the BMA before you engage with online social media platforms such as Bebo, Facebook, Flickr, Google+, Instagram, Linkedin, Pinterest, Snapchat, Twitter etc

Publications & Articles

Publications authored by Urolink members

Urolink and LMICs

Aslam MZ, Trail M, Cassell AK III et al. Establishing A Sustainable Healthcare Environment in Low- And Middle-Income Countries. BJUI 2022 

Payne SR, Chalwe M. Understanding the needs of low-income countries: how urologists can help. BJUI 2022; 129: 9-16

Payne SR. Global Urology, Urolink, and the BJUI. BJU Int 2022; 129: 1–2

Biyani CS, Campain NJ, Moore M et al. Urolink supporting the development of urological services in Hawassa, Ethiopia. BJUI 2019; 123(6): 917-920

Campain NJ, Venn S, Biyani CS et al, on behalf of BAUS Urolink. Global urology: a survey of members of the British Association of Urological Surgeons.  J Clin Urol 2016; 9(6): 409 - 416

Campain NJ, MacDonagh RP, Mteta KA et al, on behalf of BAUS Urolink. Over the horizon - future innovations in global urology.  BJUI 2015; 116(3): 318‐320

McGrath JS, MacDonagh RP. UROLINK – a changing face: learning from experience, responding to change and rediscovering our roots.  BJUI 2010; 105: 157–159

Harrison N. UROLINK: a model for working together in a changing world. BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 1-5

Value of working in the developing world

Teichmann D. The Value of Urolink: an OOPE experience. Urology News 2019; 23 (4) 30-31

Manjunath A. The Lester Eshleman Urology Workshop (Tanzania): a trainee’s perspective. Urology News 2014; 18 (4)

McGrath JS, Painter D, Payne SR. Surgical training in the developing world. BMJ Career Focus, January 2005; 46–8 

Gujral S, Nassanga R. UROLINK - benefits for trainees from both sides. BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 11-12

Logistics of working in the developing world

MacDonagh R, Jiddawi M, Parry V. Twinning: the future for sustainable collaboration.  BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 13-17

Harrison NW, Eshleman JL, Ngugi PM. Ethical issues of the developing world. Br J Urol 1995; 76(Suppl.2):  93-6

Teaching and training

Soko G. A first of many: Zambia represents at EUREP19. EAU Newspaper 2019

Campain NJ, Kailavasan M, Chalwe M et al. An Evaluation of the Role of Simulation Training for Teaching Surgical Skills in Sub-Saharan Africa.  World J Surgery 2018; 42(4): 923‐929 

Campain NJ, Parnham AS, Spasojevic N et al. Use of a simulated model to teach male adult circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa.  World J Surgery 2017; 41(1): 10-13

Campain NJ, MacDonagh RP, Mteta KA et al, on behalf of BAUS Urolink. Current challenges to urological training in sub-Saharan Africa.  BJUI 2015; 116(3): 316‐318

McGrath JS. Out of Africa. Hospital Doctor; July 2004

Evans CM,  Duffy P, Rees R. Trainees' Forum: 2003 Visit to Zambia.  Urology News 2004; 8(2): 28-30

Gujral S, Nassanga R. UROLINK - benefits for trainees from both sides. BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 11-12

Urology in specific geographic locations

Aslam ZM. The scent of Ethiopia: a personal story part 2. Urology News 2017; 21 (4) 

Aslam ZM, Teferi G, Gobeze A et al. The scent of Ethiopia: a personal story part 1. Urology News 2016; 20 (4) 

Evans CM. UROLINK in sub-Saharan Africa. BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 6-10

Fellows GJ. Lessons from a regional hospital. A personal view of urology at KCMC, Tanzania.   Trop Doctor 1995;  25(Suppl.1): 68–72

Specific diseases or conditions of urological interest

Biyani CS, Bhatt J, Taylor J et al. Introducing endourology to a developing country: how to make it sustainable.  J Clin Urol. 2013; 7(3): 202–207


Other relevant publications


Childress JF.  Public Bioethics: Principles and Problems. 2020. OUP. Oxford

Debas HT, Donkor P, Gawande A, et al (Eds). Essential Surgery: Disease Control Priorities (Third Edition) 2015. The World Bank. Washington.

Brent A, Davidson R, Seale A. Oxford Handbook of Tropical Medicine (Fourth Edition) 2014. OUP. Oxford.

Beeching N, Gill G. Tropical medicine. Lecture Notes (Seventh Edition) 2014. Wiley-Blackwell. Chichester.
Falola T, Mbah EM. Contemporary Africa: Challenges and Opportunities. 2014. Palgrave McMillan. New York.

Mabey D, Gill G, Parry E et. al. Principles of Medicine in Africa (Fourth Edition) 2013. CUP. Cambridge.

Pinto AD, & Upshur REG. (Eds.). (First Edition) 2013. An Introduction to Global Health Ethics. Routledge. London.

deVries CR, Price RR. Global Surgery and Public Health. A new Paradigm. 2012. Jones & Bartlett. Sudbury.

Crisp N. Turning the world upside down: the search for global health in the 21st century. CRC Press; 2010

Kravitz AS, van Tulleken A. The Oxford Handbook of Humanitarian Medicine. 2009. OUP. Oxford.

Kamel R, Lumley J (Eds). Textbook of Tropical Surgery. 2004. Westminster Publishing Ltd. London.

Husain I (Ed). Tropical Urology and Renal Disease.1984. Churchill Livingstone. Edinburgh.

Global Surgery

Scotland KB, Watson GM.The Current Status of Global Urology.  Curr Bladder Dysfunct Rep 2020; 15, 345–351. 

Bath M, Bashford T, Fitzgerald JE What is ‘global surgery’? Defining the multidisciplinary interface between surgery, anaesthesia and public health. BMJ Global Health 2019; 4: e001808.

Ng-Kamstra JS, Greenberg SLM, Abdullah F, et al. Global Surgery 2030: a roadmap for high income country actors.   BMJ Glob Health. 2016; 1(1): e000011.

UN. Global Sustainable Development Report 2015.

Meara JG, Leather AJM, Hagander L et al. Global Surgery 2030: evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. Lancet 2015; 386: 569–624.

Ologunde R, Maruthappu M, Shanmugarajah K et al. Surgical care in low and middle-income countries: burden and barriers. Int J Surg. 2014; 12(8): 858-63.

DoH. Engaging in Global Health - The Framework for Voluntary Engagement in Global Health by the UK Health Sector 2014 

Horton R. Offline: The case against global health. Lancet 2014; 383: 1705

Meara JG, Hagander L, Leather AJM. Surgery and global health: a Lancet Commission. Lancet 2014; 383: 12–13

Chao TE, Sharma K, Mandigo M et al. Cost-effectiveness of surgery and its policy implications for global health: a systematic review and analysis. Lancet Global Health. 2014; 2: e334-e345

Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups
in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012; 380: 2095–128

Tollefson TT, Larrabee WF Jr. Global surgical initiatives to reduce the surgical burden of disease. JAMA 2012; 307: 667–68

Murray CJL, Vos T, Lozano R, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012; 380: 2197–223

Grimes CE, Bowman KG, Dodgion CM et al. Systematic Review of Barriers to Surgical Care in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries. World J Surg 2011; 35: 941–950

Lavy C, Sauven K, Mkandawire N, et al. State of surgery in tropical Africa: a review. World J Surg 2011; 35: 262–71

Farmer PE, Kim JY. Surgery and global health: a view from beyond the OR. World J Surg 2008; 32: 533–6

Summit UNM. United Nations Millennium Declaration. In: information DoP, editor. New York: United Nations; 2000.

Burden of disease

UN. The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2021. pp 30-33.

Gouda HN, Charlson F, Sorsdahl K. et al. Burden of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, 1990–2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Glob Health 2019; 7: e1375–87

GBD 2017. Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018; 392: 1789–858

Agyepong IA, Sewankambo N, Binagwaho A et al. The path to longer and healthier lives for all Africans
by 2030: the Lancet Commission on the future of health in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 2017; 390: 2803–59

Chao TE, Sharma K, Mandigo M et al. Cost-effectiveness of surgery and its policy implications for global health: a systematic review and analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2014; 2(6): e334–e45

Allegranzi B, Nejad SB, Combescure C et al. Burden of endemic health-care-associated infection in developing countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2011; 377: 228-241

WHO. Report on the burden of endemic health care-associated infection worldwide, a systematic review of the literature. 2011

Bickler S, Ozgediz D, Gosselin R, et al. Key concepts for estimating the burden of surgical conditions and the unmet need for surgical care. World J Surg 2010; 34: 374–80.

Ozgediz D, Jamison D, Cherian et al. The burden of surgical conditions and access to surgical care in low- and middle-income countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2008; 86(8): 646-647

Weiser TG, Regenbogen SE, Thompson KD et al. An estimation of the global volume of surgery: a modelling strategy based on available data. Lancet. 2008; 372(9633): 139–44


Akenroye OO, Adebona OT, Akenroye AT. Surgical Care in the Developing World-Strategies and Framework for Improvement. J Public Health Afr. 2013; 4(2): e20

Carbon footprint

Eardley I. How can we reduce Urology's carbon footprint? BJU Int. 2022; 129(1): 7-8

Bhopal A, Norheim OF. Priority setting and net zero healthcare: how much health can a tonne of carbon buy? BMJ. 2021; 375: e067199

Tennison I, Roschnik S, Ashby B, etal. Health care’s response to climate change: a carbon footprint assessment of the NHS in England. Lancet Planet Health 2021; 5: e84-92


THET. Volunteer toolkit - Your guide to volunterering in global health 2021

Callos N. Your Guide to Volunteering with Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) 2020

Chatwin J, Ackers L. Volunteering and overseas placements in the NHS: a survey of current activity. BMJ Open 2016; 6: e012160

Goldring M. The way I see it, voluntary service is a good idea. BMJ Careers 2007; 334: s238

Dosani S. Fifteen minutes with an MSF volunteer. BMJ Careers 2006; 333 (7582): s239

Musani A, Shaikh I. Preparedness for humanitarian crises needs to be improved. BMJ Careers 2006; 333; 843-845

Anwar I. Working in a disaster zone. BMJ Careers 2006;  332: s161

Haberman E. Missionary work for beginners. BMJ Careers 2006; 332: gp153

Gillies R. Fifteen minutes with the President of Medicins sans Frontieres. BMJ Careers 2004; 329: 68

Suleman S. Voluntary service abroad. BMJ Careers 2004; 329: s27

Value of working in LMICs

McCauley M, Raven J, van den Broek N. Experiences and impact of international medical volunteering: a multi-country mixed methods study. BMJ Open 2021; 11: e041599

Holly L. International Health Partnerships: how does the NHS benefit. THET 2019.

Zamora, B., Gurupira, M., Rodes Sanchez, M. et al. The value of international volunteers experience to the NHS.   Global Health 2019; 15: 31.

Tyler N. Defining and Measuring the Personal and Professional Development for Healthcare Professionals on International Placements in Low and Middle Income Countries’. PhD Thesis. University of Salford, Manchester 2018

RCPSG. Global Citizenship in the Scottish Health Service. The value of international volunteering 2017

Yeomans D, Le G, Pandit H, et al. Is overseas volunteering beneficial to the NHS? The analysis of volunteers’ responses to a feedback questionnaire following experiences in low-income and middle- income countries.   BMJ Open 2017; 7: e017517

Clark  J, Lewis  S. Impact beyond volunteering. A realist evaluation of the complex and long-term pathways of volunteer impact. London: VSO, 2017 

Walpole SC, Shortall C, van Schalkwyk MC et al. Time to go global: a consultation on global health competencies for postgraduate doctors.  Int Health 2016; 8: 317–323

Jack  BA, Kirton  JA, Downing  J, et al. The personal value of being part of a tropical health education trust (THET) links programme to develop a palliative care degree programme in Sub Saharan Africa: a descriptive study of the views of volunteer UK health care professionals. Global Health 2015; 11: 47

All Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health. Improving Health at Home and Abroad: How overseas volunteering from the NHS benefits the UK and the world. 2013 Improving Health at Home and Abroad - Full Report

Crisp N. Global Health Partnerships - The UK contribution to health in developing countries. COI. 2007

Baguely D, Killeen T, Wright J. International health links: an evaluation of partnerships bwetween health-care organizations in the UK and developing countries. Tropical Doctor 2006; 36: 149-154

Ethical Considerations

Sayeed S, Taylor L. Institutionalising global health: a call for ethical reflection. BMJ Global Health 2020; 5: e003353

Childress JF. Paternalism in Healthcare and Health Policy Chapter 2 in Public Bioethics: Principles and Problems. 2020. OUP. Oxford

Kruk ME, Gage AD, Arsenault C et al. High-quality health systems in the Sustainable Development Goals era: time for a revolution. Lancet Glob Health. 2018; 6(11): e1196-e1252

Evans, FM, Nabukenya MT. Con: Pure service delivery is no longer needed in global surgical missions. Can J Anesth/J Can Anesth 2017; 64: 353–357

Abimbola S. The information problem in global health. BMJ Glob Health. 2016; 1(1): e900001 

THET. Partnerships for Global Health. A vision of co-development in the era of the Sustainable Development Goals. THET Strategic Plan 2016 - 2021

Loh LC, Cherniak W, Dreifus BA et al. Short term global health experiences and local partnership models: a framework. Global Health 2015; 11: 50 

Shrime, MG, Sleemi A, Ravilla TD. Charitable Platforms in Global Surgery: A Systematic Review of their Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, Sustainability, and Role Training. World J Surg  2015; 39: 10–20

Birn A-E. Philanthrocapitalism, past and present: The Rockefeller Foundation, the Gates Foundation, and the setting(s) of the international/ global health agenda. Hypothesis 2014, 12(1): e8

Stapleton G, Schröder-Bäck P, Laaser U et al. Global health ethics: an introduction to prominent theories and relevant topics. Glob Health Action. 2014; 7: 23569

Kraeker C, Chandler C. We Learn From Them, They Learn From Us.  Academic Medicine 2013; 88(4): 483-487

Kiromera A, Philpott J, Marsh S et al. Ethics and clinical work in global health Chapter 7 pp 87-101. in Pinto AD, & Upshur REG. (Eds.). (First Edition) 2013. An Introduction to Global Health Ethics. Routledge. London.

Morvaridi B. Capitalist Philanthropy and Hegemonic Partnerships, Third World Quarterly 2012; 33:7, 1191-1210

Stuckler D, Basu S, McKee M. Global Health Philanthropy and Institutional Relationships: How Should Conflicts of Interest Be Addressed? PLoS Med 2011;  8(4): e1001020

Wall LL. Ethical concerns regarding operations by volunteer surgeons on vulnerable patient groups: the case of women with obstetric fistulas. HEC Forum. 2011 Jun; 23(2): 115-27

Leather AJM, Butterfield C, Peachey K et al. International health links movement expands in the United Kingdom. Int Health. 2010; 2:165–71

Olakanmi O, Perry PJ.  History of medicine. Medical volunteerism in Africa: an historical sketch. Virtual Mentor. 2006; 8(12): 863-870

Whitehead M. The Concepts and Principles of Equity and Health. Int J Health Serv. 1992; 22(3): 429-445

The medical diaspora from, and the effects of  volunteers in LMICs

THET. Experts in Our Midst: Recognising the contribution NHS diaspora staff make to global health. THET 2021

Hutch A, Bekele A, O'Flynn E et al. The Brain Drain Myth: retention of specialist surgical graduates in East, Central & Southern Africa, 1974-2013.  World J Surgery. 2017; 41: 3041-53

Tam V, Edge JS, Hoffman SJ. Empirically evaluating the WHO global code of practice on the international recruitment of health personnel’s impact on four high-income countries four years after adoption. Global Health 2016; 12: 62

Hoffman SJ, Røttingen JA. Assessing the Expected Impact of Global Health Treaties: Evidence From 90 Quantitative Evaluations. Am J Public Health. 2015; 105(1): 26-40

Poppe A,  Jirovsky E,  Blacklock C et. al.  Why sub-Saharan African health workers migrate to European countries that do not actively recruit: a qualitative study post-migration. Global Health Action 2014; 7: 1

Cometto G, Tulenko K, Muula AS et al.  Health Workforce Brain Drain: From Denouncing the Challenge to Solving the Problem. PLoS Med. 2013: 10(9): e1001514

Nair M, Webster P. Health professionals' migration in emerging market economies: patterns, causes and possible solutions, J Public Health, 2013: 35(1): 157–163 

Mills E J, Kanters S, Hagopian A et al. The financial cost of doctors emigrating from sub-Saharan Africa: human capital analysis BMJ. 2011; 343 : d7031

WHO. User’s Guide to the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel. WHO 2011, Geneva

Dolea C, Stormont L, Braichet JM. Evaluated strategies to increase attraction and retention of health workers in remote and rural areas. Bull World Health Organ. 2010; 88(5): 379-385 

Dangers of medical 'tourism'

McCauley M, Raven J, van den Broek N. Experiences and impact of international medical volunteering: a multi-country mixed methods study. BMJ Open 2021; 11: e041599

Gostin LO. Global Health: Shared Obligations and Mutual Respect.  Ann Global Health 2019; 85(1): 80

Eadsforth H. Professionalisation of International Medical Volunteer Work to Maintain Ethical Standards: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Experience of Volunteer Doctors in Relation to UK Policy. Med Sci (Basel). 2019 Jan 14; 7(1): 9

Stone GS, Olson KR. The Ethics of Medical Volunteerism. Med Clin North Am. 2016 Mar; 100(2): 237-46

Grimes CE, Lane RHS. Global surgery guidelines for surgical volunteerism. How to ensure that your surgical placement overseas provides maximum benefit for you and your hosts. Bulletin RCS Eng. 2016; 98:4: 172-173 

Gilbert BJ, Miller C, Corrick F. et al. Should trainee doctors use the developing world to gain clinical experience? The annual Varsity Medical Debate – London, Friday 20th January, 2012. Philos Ethics Humanit Med 2013; 8: 1

Welling DR, Ryan JM, Burris DG. et al. Seven Sins of Humanitarian Medicine. World J Surg 2010;  34: 466–470

Short Term Experiences

Martin K. Do No Harm: The Urgent Need to Reform Short-Term Global Health Experiences.  Ann Global Health 2019 85(1): 81

Rowthorn V, Loh L, Evert J, Chung E et al. Not Above the Law: A Legal and Ethical Analysis of Short-Term Experiences in Global Health. Ann Global Health 2019; 85(1): 79

de Camp M, Lehmann LS, Jaeel P et al. Ethical Obligations Regarding Short-Term Global Health Clinical Experiences: An American College of Physicians Position Paper. Ann Intern Med.2018; 168: 651-657

Lasker JN, Aldrink M, Balasubramaniam R et al. Guidelines for responsible short-term global health activities: developing common principles. Global Health 2018; 14: 18

Roche SD, Ketheeswaran P, Wirtz VJ. International short-term medical missions: a systematic review of recommended practices. Int J Public Health 2017; 62: 31–42

Rozier MD, Lasker JN, Compton B. Short-term volunteer health trips: aligning host community preferences and organizer practices. Global Health Action 2017; 10: 1

Bale  AG, Sifri  ZC. Surgery resident participation in short-term humanitarian international surgical missions can supplement exposure where program case volumes are low. Am J Surg 2016; 211: 294–9

Caldron PH, Impens A, Pavlova M. et al. A systematic review of social, economic and diplomatic aspects of short-term medical missions. BMC Health Serv Res 2015; 15: 380

Sykes KJ. Short-term medical service trips: a systematic review of the evidence. Am J Public Health. 2014; 104(7): e38-48

Logistics of working in the developing world

Metzler I, Bayne D, Chang H et al. Challenges facing the urologist in low- and middle-income countries. World J Urol. 2020; 38(11): 2987-2994 

BMA. Working abroad as a doctor BMA

Pittalis C, Brugha R, Gajewski J. Surgical referral systems in low- and middle-income countries: A review of the evidence. PLoS ONE 2019; 14(9): e0223328 

Grimes CE, Maraka J, Kingsnorth AN et al. Guidelines for surgeons on establishing projects in low-income countries.  World J Surg. 2013; 37(6): 1203-1207.

Kruk M E, Wladis A, Mbembati N et al. Human Resource and Funding Constraints for Essential Surgery in District Hospitals in Africa: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Survey. PLoS Med 2010; 7 (3): e1000242

BMA. Broadening your horizons: a guide to taking time out to work and train in developing countries BMA International Department 2009

Baguley D, Killeen T, Wright J. International health links: an evaluation of partnerships between health-care organizations in the UK and developing countries. Trop Dr. 2006; 36: 149–54

Urology in specific geographic locations

Rao, KD, Bhatnagar A, Berman PSo many, yet few: Human resources for health in India.  Hum Resour Health 2012; 10, 19

Managadze L, Chanturaia Z. Urology in Eastern Europe in the 1990s.  BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 18-21

Specific diseases or conditions of urological interest


Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL et al. Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2021; 71(3): 209-49

Mantica G, Terrone C, Der Merwe AV. Bladder Cancer and Associated Risk Factors: The African Panorama. Eur Urol. 2021; 79(5): 568-570

Van Hemelrijck M. The burden of urological cancers in low and middle income countries. BJUI 2019; 123(4): 557

Torres-Roman JS, Ruiz EF, Martinez-Herrera JF et al. Prostate Cancer Mortality rates in Peru and its geographic regions. BJU Int. 2019; 123(4): 595-601

Fitzmaurice C, Dicker D, Pain A et al. The global burden of cancer 2013. JAMA Oncol 2015;  1: 505– 27

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015; 136: E359 – 86

Benign conditions

Ghoneim M . Bilharziasis of the genitourinary tract. BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 22-30

Naudeâ J. Reconstructive urology in the tropical and developing world: a personal perspective.
BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 31-36

DeVries C. The role of the urologist in the treatment and elimination of lymphatic filariasis worldwide.
BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 37-43

Plange-Rhule J, Micah F, Eastwood J. Clinical nephrological problems important to the urologist.
BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 44-49

Hamlin E, Muleta M, Kennedy R. Providing an obstetric fistula service.  BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 50-53

Sharifi-Aghdas F, Ghaderian N, Payvand A. Free bladder mucosal autograft in the treatment of complicated vesicovaginal fistula.  BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 54-56

Gaitonde K, Goyal A, Nagaonkar S et al. Retrospective review and long-term follow-up of radical cystectomy in a developing country.  BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 57-61

Rizvi S, Naqvi S, Hussain Z et al. The management of stone disease.
BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 62-68


Marks IH, Thomas H, Bakhet M et al. Medical equipment donation in low resource settings: a review of the literature and guidelines for surgery & anaesthesia in low-income and middle-income countries. 
BMJ Global Health 2019; 4: 4-9

Bolton WS, Aruparayil N, Quyn A et al. Disseminating technology in global surgery. British Journal of Surgery. 2019; 106(2): e34-43.

Malkin RA, Whittle C. Biomedical equipment technician capacity building using a unique evidence-based curriculum improves healthcare. J Clin Eng. 2014; 39(1): 37–44.

Oosting RM, Wauben LSGL, Groen RS et al. Equipment for essential surgical care in 9 countries across Africa: availability, barriers and need for novel design. Health Technol. 2009; 9: 269–275.

WHO. Medical Devices. Managing the Mismatch An outcome of the Priority Medical Devices project. 2010. Geneva.



Oppong FC. Innovation in income-poor environments. British Journal of Surgery. 2015; 102(2): e102-7.

World Health Organization. Compendium of innovative health technologies for low ressources settings 2011–2014. Geneva: WHO; 2015.

Cotton M, Henry JA, Hasek L. Value innovation: an important aspect of global surgical care. Globalization and health. 2014;10(1): 1-5.

World Health Organization. Emerging economies drive frugal innovation. Bull World Health Organ. 2013; 91(1): 6–7.

Syed SB, Dadwal V, Rutter et al. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?. Globalization and health. 2012; 8(1): 1-0.

Frugal innovation

Onsongo E, Knorringa P. Comparing Frugality and Inclusion in Innovation for Development: Logic, Process and Outcomes. Centre for Frugal Innovation in Africa. 2020.

Bolton WS, Aruparayil N, Quyn A et al. Disseminating technology in global surgery. British Journal of Surgery. 2019; 106(2): e34-43.

Arshad H, Radić M, Radić D. Patterns of frugal innovation in healthcare. Technology Innovation Management Review. 2018; 8(4): 28-37.

Tran VT, Ravaud P. Frugal innovation in medicine for low resource settings. BMC Medicine 2016; 14: 102.

Reverse innovation

Sharma D, Cotton M. Reverse innovation in health: Good but not good enough to be standard of care? Tropical Doctor. 2021 ;51(2): 139-140

Bhattacharyya O, Wu D, Mossman K et al. Criteria to assess potential reverse innovations: opportunities for shared learning between high-and low-income countries. Globalization and health. 2017; 13(4): 1-8.

Kulasabanathan K, Issa H, Bhatti Y et al. Do International Health Partnerships contribute to reverse innovation? a mixed methods study of THET-supported partnerships in the UK. Globalization and health. 2017; 13(1): 1-1.

Harris M, Weisberger E, Silver D et al. ‘That’s not how the learning works’- the paradox of reverse innovation: a qualitative study. Glob Health. 2016; 12: 36.

Harris M, Weisberger E, Silver D, Macinko J. ‘They hear “Africa” and they think that there can’t be any good services’ – perceived context in cross-national learning: a qualitative study of the barriers to reverse innovation. Glob Health. 2015; 11: 45.

Aids to working outside the UK

Kluyts H-L, le Manach Y,  Munlemvo DM et al. The ASOS Surgical Risk Calculator: development and validation of a tool for identifying African surgical patients at risk of severe postoperative complications.  Br J Anaes 2018: 121 (6): 1357-1363

Corporacy and quality assurance

Mulwafu W, Fualal J, Bekele A et al. The impact of COSECSA in developing the surgical workforce in East Central and Southern Africa. Surgeon 2021: S1479-666X(21)00188-8 .

Muguti G, Itungu S on behalf of the COSECSA CouncilCollege of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa. Strategic Plan 2021-2025. 2020, Arusha.

Teaching, training and professional development

Hill E, Gurbutt D, Makuloluwa T et al. Collaborative healthcare education programmes for continuing professional education in low and middle-income countries: A Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) systematic review. BEME Guide No. 65. Med Teach. 2021: 1-14.
Ossai EN, Ogbuoji O. Redressing the impact of COVID-19 on medical education in Africa: the need for collective action. BMJ Global Health 2021; 6: e005067.

Mohan HM, Fitzgerald E, Gokani V et al. Engagement and role of surgical trainees in global surgery: Consensus statement and recommendations from the Association of Surgeons in Training.  Int. J. Surg. 2018; 52: 366-370.

Barber Z, Jones C, Dobbs T.Taking time out of training.  BMJ  2015; 351 :h5460

Dreyer J, Hannay J, Lane R. Teaching the management of surgical emergencies through a short course to surgical residents in East/Central Africa delivers excellent educational outcomes.  World J Surgery 2014; 38(4): 830-8.
(Urolink organised and ran the urology component of this course)

Ajape AA, Kura MM, Ojo EO et al. Skills acquisition for trainee urologists: are the Federal Medical Centers in Nigeria suitable? Ann Afr Med. 2012 Jul-Sep;11(3):146-51.

Olapade-Olaopa EO, Adebayo SA, Ajamu O et al. British training, and urological practice in sub-Saharan Africa. BJU Int. 2010; 105(10): 1353-5.

Ozgediz D, Roayaie K, Debas H et al. Surgery in Developing Countries: Essential Training in Residency. Arch Surg. 2005; 140(8): 795–800

Simulation training
Abahuje E, Bartuska A, Koch R et al. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Behavior Change After Implementation of an Interdisciplinary Surgical Non-Technical Skills Training Program in Rwanda. J Surg Educ. 2021; 78(5): 1618-1628.

Annoh R, Banks LM, Gichuhi S et al. Experiences and Perceptions of Ophthalmic Simulation-Based Surgical Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. J Surg Educ. 2021; 78(6): 1973-1984.

Yin Mar Oo, Nataraja RM. The application of simulation-based medical education in low- and middle-income countries; the Myanmar experience. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2020; 29(2): 150910. 

Kang MJ, Apea-Kubi KB, Apea-Kubi KAK. Establishing a Sustainable Training Program for Laparoscopy in Resource-Limited Settings: Experience in Ghana. Ann Glob Health. 2020; 86(1): 89.

Bulamba F, Sendagire C, Kintu A et al. Feasibility of Simulation-Based Medical Education in a Low-Income Country: Challenges and Solutions From a 3-year Pilot Program in Uganda. Simul Healthc. 2019; 14(2): 113-120.
Bunogerane GJ, Taylor K, Lin Y et al. Using Touch Surgery to Improve Surgical Education in Low- and Middle-Income Settings: A Randomized Control Trial. J Surg Educ. 2018; 75(1): 231-237.
Martinerie L, Rasoaherinomenjanahary F, Ronot M et al. Health Care Simulation in Developing Countries and Low-Resource Situations. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2018; 38(3): 205-212.

Puri L, Das J, Pai M, Agrawal P et al. Enhancing quality of medical care in low income and middle income countries through simulation based initiatives: recommendations of the Simnovate Global Health Domain Group. BMJ Stel 2017; 3(Suppl 1): S15–S22.

Tansley G, Bailey JG, Gu Y et al. Efficacy of Surgical Simulation Training in a Low-Income Country. World J Surg 2016; 40(11): 2643-2649. 
Ahmad JI, Mishra RK. Minimal access surgery educational needs of trainees from Africa: perspectives from an Asian Training Institution. West Afr J Med 2015; 34(1): 44-49.
Burch V. Does simulation-based training have a future in Africa? Afr J Health Prof Educ. 2014; 6(2): 117-118.

Livingston P, Bailey J, Ntakiyiruta G et al. Development of a simulation and skills centre in East Africa: a Rwandan-Canadian partnership. Pan Afr Med J. 2014;  17: 315.

Kigozi G, Nkale J, Wawer M et al. Designing and usage of a low-cost penile model for male medical circumcision skills training in Rakai, Uganda. Urology. 2011; 77(6): 1495-7.

Taché S, Mbembati N, Marshall N et al. Addressing gaps in surgical skills training by means of low-cost simulation at Muhimbili University in Tanzania. Hum Resour Health. 2009 Jul 27; 7: 64.

Dorman K, Satterthwaite L, Byrne N et al. The case for Surgical Skills Centre in Sub Saharan Africa: The Benefits and the Challenges. East Cent Afr J Surg. 2007; 12(1): 4-6.


Parvin-Nejad FP, Hoffman GS, Padmanaban V, et al. Surgical subspecialists in West Africa: Workforce size, training opportunities, and contributing factors. Surgery 2021; 170(2): 478-484. 

Mulwafu W, Fualal J, Bekele A et al. The impact of COSECSA in developing the surgical workforce in East Central and Southern Africa. Surgeon 2021: S1479-666X(21)00188-8 .

O'Flynn E, Andrew J, Hutch A et al. The Specialist Surgeon Workforce in East, Central and Southern Africa: A Situation Analysis. World J Surg. 2016; 40(11): 2620-2627.

The World Bank. Specialist surgical workforce - Sub-Saharan Africa 2015.


Ademuyiwa AO, Hardy P, Runigamugabo E et al on behalf of the NIHR Global Research Health Unit on Global Surgery. Reducing surgical site infections in low-income and middle- income countries (FALCON): a pragmatic, multicentre, stratified, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 2021; 398(10312): 1687-1699.  

Harris M, Macinko J, Jimenez G et al. Measuring the bias against low-income country research: an Implicit Association Test. Globalization and Health. 2017; 13(1): 1-9.


Jumbam DT. How (not) to write about global health. BMJ Global Health 2020; 5: e003164.

Sgrò A, Al-Busaidi IS, Wells CI et al. Global surgery: a 30-year bibliometric analysis (1987–2017). World Journal of Surgery. 2019; 43(11): 2689-98.

Wainaina B. How to write about Africa. 2005. Granta 2019; 92.

Abimbola S. The foreign gaze: authorship in academic global health. BMJ Global Health 2019; 4: e002068.


Podcasts, Webinars, Meetings & Conferences


The History of Urolink (March 2021)
Listen to a conversation between Steve Payne and Neville Harrison (retired consultant urologist from Brighton and Urolink's first chair) about his initial experiences working in Africa in the 1970s, his role in the development of an organisation that morphed into Urolink and his relationship with Lester Eschelman that initiated the development of the first durable link between BAUS and KCMC. This podcast is a fascinating insight into the evolution of Urolink from an embryonic concept to the organisation we know today.
Fellowship Training in the UK - a Malawian Perspective (October 2020)
Listen to a conversation between Steve Payne (BAUS Urolink secretary) and Charles Mabedi (Consultant urologist in Lilongwe, Malawi) after he spent time training in the UK with Suzie Venn in Worthing. This podcast is a great opportunity to learn about the advantages and difficulties encountered by urologists coming from LMICs to the UK for further specialist surgical training.
BAUS President's Urolink Podcast (August 2020)
Listen to Tim O'Brien (President of BAUS) talking to Suzie Venn, Nick Campain and Charles Mabedi about Urolink's activities in sub-Saharan Africa.


Testicular cancer Webinar between Ndola and London moderated by Ms Chi Ying Li  (December 2021). Annie Mwewa, from Ndola Teaching Hospital in Ndola, Zambia, and Dr Alisha Patialam and Will Maynard from London, discuss the different differential diagnoses there are when considering someone with a testicular mass in both countries. TB is the commonest alternative diagnosis in Zambia and epididymo-orchitis is the main differential finding in the UK. Cultural issues influence treatment in both countries, whilst cost restrictions in the Zambian health economy influence diagnostics utilised pre-op, particularly CT scans, and prosthetic implantation at the time of orchidectomy. Chemotherapy, if required is available without an individual cost impact in Zambia, as it is in the UK. Interestingly, the results of TB screening are very much quicker in Zambia than in London!

Ureteric injury Webinar between Lilongwe and London moderated by Mr Prasad Patke (November 2021). Linda Kayange, from Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi, and Nish Bedi, from London, discuss the different management practices for ureteric injuries seen in Malawi and the UK. Interestingly, the incidence of ureteric injury that trainees are exposed to is much higher in Malawi, there are potential issue with thrombocytopenia when these are seen in association with malaria and there is an increasing incidence of medico-legal challenge in Lilongwe. This is very reminiscent of the litigious environment that surrounds obstetric or gynaecological ureteric injuries in HICs such as the UK.

Renal Cell Carcinoma Webinar between Lusaka and Wolverhampton moderated by Mr Herman Fernando (October 2021). Watch presentations by Dr Kamaki-Levy and Ms Moore about the differences in presentation of RCC in Zambia, where all patients present with symptoms, and the incidentally discovered cohort that we are used to seeing in the UK. Also hear about the way in which localised disease is managed in Zambia, how this varies from the predominatly lap or robotic approach in the UK,  and how surveillance for T1a tumours, and post-op surveillance, varies from UK practice.

THET and HEE undertook a webinar series "Going global" (September and October 2021). This series offered an unparalleled opportunity to learn from, and engage with, experienced colleagues in the field through a mixture of workshops, presentations and interactive sessions. The series was designed for NHS staff and final year medical and pharmacy students. From exploring the different opportunities available, to understanding how you can capture the learning you gain whilst volunteering overseas or virtually, the videos in the series are a fantastic place to find out more about getting involved in global health.

Prostate cancer Webinar between Lusaka and Exeter moderated by Mr Jaimin Bhatt (July 2021). Watch presentations by Dr Siame and Mr Ng about the advanced way in which prostate cancer regularly presents in Zambia and how hormone manipulation is effected there, customarily by bilateral sub-capsular orchidectomy. Mike Ng tells us about the evidence-based management of staged prostate cancer in the UK. 

Fournier's Gangrene Webinar between Lusaka and Maidstone moderated by Mr. Mark Speakman (Jun 2021). Watch presentations by Dr Stanslous and Mr Folkard about the differing modes of presentation of Fournier's gangerene from each site, and the logistic difficulties there are in pre-op preparation of really sick patients for surgical debridement in Zambia. One surprising upshot from this session was that the majority of blood donation, for transfusion, in Zambia comes from children of school age!

Posterior Urethral Valves Webinar between Lusaka and Leeds moderated by Prof. Ram Subramaniam (May 2021). Watch presentations by Dr. Kachacha and Ms Please about the markedly different incidence, and age at presentation, of PUVs in both countries. There was a wide-ranging discussion about aetiological factors as well as the pros and cons of early and late treatment. Ram Subramaniam gave a fascinating synopsis of his vast experience in managing the dysfunctional bladder problems associated with this condition.

Hypospadias Webinar between Lusaka and Salford moderated by Mr Nenad Spasojevic (Apr 2021)
Watch presentations by Dr Obeng and Mr Gray, about the modes of presentation of hypospadias in both countries, and a discussion about the pros and cons of early and later treatment for children with distal abnormalities. There is also some debate about the long-term consequences of reconstructive surgery for this common urogenital condition. 
Urethral Trauma Webinar between Lusaka and Exeter moderated by Mr Steve Payne (Mar 2021)
Watch presentations by Dr Obeng and Mr Ng, about the substantial differences in the causes of traumatic urethral stricture between the two countries. The involvement of three UK-based reconstructors gives up-to-the-minute views about the initial mangement of urethral trauma, and subsequent reconstruction.
Testicular Torsion Webinar between Lusaka and Maidstone moderated by Mr Ian Rudd (Feb 2021)
Watch presentations by Dr Soko and Mr. Folkard, about how the lack of primary care services, and the distances to hospital, make to the outcome from testicular torsion. It is also a fascinating insight into the differences in getting obtaining informed consent from parents is between the UK and Zambia!
Undecended Testis Webinar between Lusaka and Inverness moderated by Mr Mike Ng (Jan 2021)
Watch presentations by Dr Mutana and Miss Brodie, about the differences in the age of presentation with undecended testis as well as the options available to try and maintain fertility, or manage male-factor infertility in men presenting late with cryptorchidism.
Penile Cancer Webinar between Lusaka and Bristol moderated by Mr Adi Manjunath (Dec 2020)
Watch presentations by Dr Masebo and Mr Sahdev, about the differences in the presentation and aetiological causes of penile cancer seen in the UK and Zambia. This presentation emphasies the importance of HPV in the aetiology of penile cancer in Africa, and the late presentation there.
Bladder Cancer Webinar between Lusaka and Exeter moderated by Mr Jaimin Bhatt (Nov 2020)
Watch presentations by Dr Chamileke and Mr Ng, about the differences in the aetiology, presentation    and management of bladder cancer cases seen in the UK and Zambia. Emphasies the different pathologies that cause bladder cancer in each setting, and the evidence base for management in Europe.


BAUS Annual Scientific Meeting 2021

(Chairs: Mr Jaimin Bhatt & Mr Matt Trail)

 Jaimin Bhatt, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow and Matt Trail, Victoria Hospital, Kirkcaldy

Update from Our Sites – Zambia, Hawassa, KCMC Tanzania, Malawi and Uganda
Steve Payne, Manchester

Remote Mentoring
Graham Watson, Eastbourne District General Hospital

Bidirectional learning - a Zambia/U.K. collaboration
Nick Campain, Royal Free Hospital, London, Mike NG, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Nkomba Chamileke and Victor Mapulanga, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia

Plans for the Next Year
Jaimin Bhatt, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow

BAUS Annual Scientific Meeting 2019

(Chairs: Miss Suzie Venn & Mr Philip Thomas)

Suzie Venn, St Richard's Hospital, Chichester

Ru MacDonagh, Taunton & Somerset Hospital
OOPE with Urolink
Dominic Teichmann, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Wales

BAUS Annual Scientific Meeting 2018

(Chairs: Mrs Suzie Venn & Mr Paul Anderson)

Urolink Update
Suzie Venn, St Richard’s Hospital & Mr Paul Anderson, Russells Hall Hospital, Dudley

Urological Training in Africa
Charles Mabedi, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi

Training LMIC Urologists in the UK
Abubacarr Jah, Sharab Medical Centre, Serrekunda, The Gambia

BAUS Annual Scientific Meeting 2017

(Chairs: Mrs Suzie Venn & Mr Graham Watson)

Endourology in the developing world: challenges & opportunities
Srinath Chandrasekera, University of Sri Jayawardanapura, Sri Lanka
TURP camps at Kisiizi Hospital, Uganda - better than the day job
Adam Jones, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading

BAUS Annual Scientific Meeting 2016

(Chair: Mr Philip Thomas, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton)

Lancet commission on global surgery
Philip Thomas, Royal Sussex County Hospital Brighton
Observations from Urolink visit to Ethiopia
Zeeshan Aslam, Morriston Hospital Swansea
Thoughts on KCMC visit
Chris Parker, Yeovil District Hospital
MSE course - teaching the management of urological emergencies
Nick Campain, Torbay District Hospital
Urethroplasty workshop, Lusaka
Paul Anderson, Russells Hall Hospital Birmingham


Below are conferences that Urolink members have taken part in, or have presented at. Links to content are provided which you may find interesting. Click on the text or the images to access this. 

THET Annual Conference - October 2021

Mike Ng, from Exeter UK, and Nkombo Chamileke, from UTH Lusaka, present their paper, "Bi-directional benefits associated with a urology-themed webinar programme during the Covid-19 pandemic: experiences from a UK-Zambia health partnership" (from 53.30 to 1.09.00) to the THET annual conference in October 2021.
During the breakout session "Solidarity during Covid-19" they describe their experience with virtual learning during the pandemic, and how a sustainable learning resource has been generated through the co-operation between the UK and Zambian urological trainees during 2020/21.

Global Surgical Frontiers Conference - April 2017

The theme for the 2017 conference was Surgery in Children and Young People.
All surgical specialties deal with children's surgical conditions, and most low and middle income countries (LMICs) have a demographic breakdown where nearly half of their population are under 16. 
The aim of the GSF Conference, held on 21 & 22 April 2017, was three fold:
  1. to inform about global needs in surgery;
  2. to provide information about how UK surgeons can be involved with surgical work, training and research in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs); and
  3. to allow networking for surgeons, trainees and medical students interested in global surgery.

Conference programme  |  Video record of Day 1  |  Video record of Day 2


COSECSA / RCSI Collaboration on the Management of Surgical Emergencies

The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and the College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa (COSECSA) established a Collaboration Programme in 2007. This programme was finally implemented in 2008.

Its aim is to increase the provision of quality, essential surgical and emergency care in the COSECSA region, particularly at district level (i.e. the management of surgical emergencies, MSE).

The programme is supported by Irish Aid (the Government of Ireland's Development Agency) and RCSI which provides for staff and resources including curricula, education tools, skills training, examination, accreditation and quality assurance processes.

Additional information about the  RCSI/COSECSA collaboration programme can be found on their joint Twitter account.

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