Debas HT, Donkor P, Gawande A, et al. Essential Surgery: Disease Control Priorities (Third Edition) 2015. The World Bank. Washington.
Brent A, Davidson R, Seale A. Oxford Handbook of Tropical Medicine (Fourth Edition) 2014. OUP. Oxford.
Beeching N, Gill G. Tropical medicine. Lecture Notes (Seventh Edition) 2014. Wiley-Blackwell. Chichester.
Falola T, Mbah EM. Contemporary Africa: Challenges and Opportunities. 2014. Palgrave McMillan. New York.
Mabey D, Gill G, Parry E et. al. Principles of Medicine in Africa (Fourth Edition) 2013. CUP. Cambridge.
deVries CR, Price RR. Global Surgery and Public Health. A new Paradigm. 2012. Jones & Bartlett. Sudbury.
Kravitz AS, van Tulleken A. The Oxford Handbook of Humanitarian Medicine. 2009. OUP. Oxford.
Kamel R, Lumley J. Textbook of Tropical Surgery. 2004. Westminster Publishing Ltd. London.
Value of working in the developing world
Zamora, B., Gurupira, M., Rodes Sanchez, M. et al. The value of international volunteers experience to the NHS. Global Health 2019; 15: 31.
Yeomans D, Le G, Pandit H, et al. Is overseas volunteering beneficial to the NHS? The analysis of volunteers’ responses to a feedback questionnaire following experiences in low-income and middle- income countries. BMJ Open 2017; 7: e017517.
Walpole SC, Shortall C, van Schalkwyk MCI et al. Time to go global: a consultation on global health competencies for postgraduate doctors. Int Health 2016; 8: 317–323
All Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health. Improving Health at Home and Abroad: How overseas volunteering from the NHS benefits the UK and the world. 2013 Improving Health at Home and Abroad - Full Report
Crisp N. Global Health Partnerships - The UK contribution to health in developing countries. COI. 2007
Baguely D, Killeen T, Wright J. International health links: an evaluation of partnerships bwetween health-care organizations in the UK and developing countries. Tropical Doctor 2006; 36: 149-154
Potential downsides of training in, or away from, the developing world
Hutch A, Bekele A, O'Flynn E, Ndonga A, Tierney S, Fualal J, Samkange C, Erzingatsian K. The Brain Drain Myth: retention of specialist surgical graduates in East, Central & Southern Africa, 1974-2013. World J Surgery. 2017; 41: 3041-53
Grimes CE, Lane RHS. Global surgery guidelines for surgical volunteerism. How to ensure that your surgical placement overseas provides maximum benefit for you and your hosts. Bulletin RCS Eng. 2016; 98:4: 172-173
Tam V, Edge JS, Hoffman SJ. Empirically evaluating the WHO global code of practice on the international recruitment of health personnel’s impact on four high-income countries four years after adoption. Global Health 2016; 12: 62.
Hoffman SJ, Røttingen JA. Assessing the Expected Impact of Global Health Treaties: Evidence From 90 Quantitative Evaluations. Am J Public Health. 2015 Jan;105(1):26-40.
Poppe A, Jirovsky Blacklock C et. al. Why sub-Saharan African health workers migrate to European countries that do not actively recruit: a qualitative study post-migration. Global Health Action 2014; , 7:1
Cometto G, Tulenko K, Muula AS, Krech R. Health Workforce Brain Drain: From Denouncing the Challenge to Solving the Problem. PLoS Med. 2013: 10(9): e1001514.
Nair M, Webster P. Health professionals' migration in emerging market economies: patterns, causes and possible solutions, J Public Health, 2013: 35(1): 157–163.
Mills E J, Kanters S, Hagopian A, Bansback N, Nachega J, Alberton M et al. The financial cost of doctors emigrating from sub-Saharan Africa: human capital analysis BMJ. 2011; 343 :d7031 doi:10.1136/bmj.d7031
Logistics of working in the developing world
Metzler I, Bayne D, Chang H, Jalloh M, Sharlip I. Challenges facing the urologist in low- and middle-income countries. . World J Urol. 2020 Nov;38(11): 2987-2994.
Scotland KB, Watson GM.The Current Status of Global Urology. Curr Bladder Dysfunct Rep 2020; 15, 345–351.
BMA. Working abroad as a doctor BMA
Pittalis C, Brugha R, Gajewski J. Surgical referral systems in low- and middle-income countries: A review of the evidence. PLoS ONE 2019; 14(9): e0223328.
Ng-Kamstra JS, Greenberg SLM, Abdullah F, et al. Global Surgery 2030: a roadmap for high income country actors. BMJ Glob Health. 2016; 1(1): e000011.
Ologunde R, Maruthappu M, Shanmugarajah K, Shalhoub J. Surgical care in low and middle-income countries: burden and barriers. Int J Surg. 2014; 12(8): 858-63.
Grimes CE, Maraka J, Kingsnorth AN, Darko R, Samkange CA, Lane RH. Guidelines for surgeons on establishing projects in low-income countries. World J Surg. 2013; 37(6): 1203-1207.
Akenroye OO, Adebona OT, Akenroye AT. Surgical Care in the Developing World-Strategies and Framework for Improvement. J Public Health Afr. 2013; 4(2): e20.
Grimes, C.E., Bowman, K.G., Dodgion, C.M. et al. Systematic Review of Barriers to Surgical Care in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries. World J Surg 2011; 35: 941–950.
Kruk M E, Wladis A, Mbembati N, Ndao-Brumblay S K, Hsia R Y. et al. Human Resource and Funding Constraints for Essential Surgery in District Hospitals in Africa: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Survey. PLoS Med 2010; 7 (3): e1000242.
BMA. Broadening your horizons: a guide to taking time out to work and train in developing countries BMA International Department 2009
Burden of disease
Gouda HN, Charlson F, Sorsdahl K. et al. Burden of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, 1990–2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Glob Health 2019; 7: e1375–87.
GBD 2017 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2018; 392: 1789–858.
Agyepong IA, Sewankambo N, Binagwaho A et al. The path to longer and healthier lives for all Africans
by 2030: the Lancet Commission on the future of health in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 2017; 390: 2803–59.
Chao TE, Sharma K, Mandigo M, Hagander L, Resch SC, Weiser TG, et al. Cost-effectiveness of surgery and its policy implications for global health: a systematic review and analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2014; 2(6): e334–e45.
Weiser TG, Regenbogen SE, Thompson KD, Haynes AB, Lipsitz SR, Berry WR, et al. An estimation of the global volume of surgery: a modelling strategy based on available data. Lancet. 2008; 372(9633): 139–44.
Teaching and training
Ossai EN, Ogbuoji O. Redressing the impact of COVID-19 on medical education in Africa: the need for collective action.
Mohan HM, Fitzgerald E, Gokani V et al. Engagement and role of surgical trainees in global surgery: Consensus statement and recommendations from the Association of Surgeons in Training. Int. J. Surg. 2018 Apr; 52: 366-370.
Barber Z, Jones C, Dobbs T.Taking time out of training. BMJ 2015; 351 :h5460
Dreyer J, Hannay J, Lane R. Teaching the management of surgical emergencies through a short course to surgical residents in East/Central Africa delivers excellent educational outcomes. World J Surgery 2014; 38(4): 830-8
(Urolink organised and ran the urology component of this course)
Ozgediz D, Roayaie K, Debas H, Schecter W, Farmer D. Surgery in Developing Countries: Essential Training in Residency. Arch Surg. 2005;140(8):795–800.
Urology in specific geographic locations
Rao, KD, Bhatnagar A, Berman P. So many, yet few: Human resources for health in India. Hum Resour Health 2012; 10, 19
Managadze L, Chanturaia Z. Urology in Eastern Europe in the 1990s. BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 18-21
Specific diseases or conditions of urological interest
Mantica G, Terrone C, Der Merwe AV. Bladder Cancer and Associated Risk Factors: The African Panorama. Eur Urol. 2021 May; 79(5): 568-570
Ghoneim M . Bilharziasis of the genitourinary tract. BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 22-30
Naudeâ J. Reconstructive urology in the tropical and developing world: a personal perspective.
BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 31-36
DeVries C. The role of the urologist in the treatment and elimination of lymphatic filariasis worldwide.
BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 37-43
Plange-Rhule J, Micah F, Eastwood J. Clinical nephrological problems important to the urologist.
BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 44-49
Hamlin E, Muleta M, Kennedy R. Providing an obstetric fistula service. BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 50-53
Sharifi-Aghdas F, Ghaderian N, Payvand A. Free bladder mucosal autograft in the treatment of complicated vesicovaginal fistula. BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 54-56
Gaitonde K, Goyal A, Nagaonkar S, Patil N, Singh D, Srinivas V. Retrospective review and long-term follow-up of radical cystectomy in a developing country. BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 57-61
Rizvi S, Naqvi S, Hussain Z, Hashmi A, Hussain M, Zafar M, Mehdi H, Khalid R. The management of stone disease.
BJUI 2002; 89(Suppl.1): 62-68
Marks IH, Thomas H, Bakhet M, Fitzgerald E. Medical equipment donation in low resource settings: a review of the literature and guidelines for surgery & anaesthesia in low-income and middle-income countries.
BMJ Global Health 2019; 4: 4-9
Malkin RA, Whittle C. Biomedical equipment technician capacity building using a unique evidence-based curriculum improves healthcare. J Clin Eng. 2014; 39(1): 37–44.
Oosting RM, Wauben LSGL, Groen RS et al. Equipment for essential surgical care in 9 countries across Africa: availability, barriers and need for novel design. Health Technol. 2009; 9: 269–275.
WHO. Medical Devices. Managing the Mismatch An outcome of the Priority Medical Devices project. 2010. Geneva.
Aids to working outside the UK
Kluyts H-L, le Manach Y, Munlemvo DM et al. The ASOS Surgical Risk Calculator: development and validation of a tool for identifying African surgical patients at risk of severe postoperative complications. Br J Anaes 2018: 121 (6): 1357-1363