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Workforce Issues Abroad 
(recommended reading)

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WHO health workforce support and safeguards list 2023. WHO. Geneva. The 'to the minute' list of countries which should be safeguarded against recruitment to medical facilities in high income countries. 

Surgical subspecialists in West Africa: Workforce size, training opportunities, and contributing factors
Parvin-Nejad FP, Hoffman GS, Padmanaban V, et al. Surgery 2021; 170(2): 478-484 

The impact of COSECSA in developing the surgical workforce in East Central and Southern Africa
Mulwafu W, Fualal J, Bekele A et al. Surgeon 2021: S1479-666X(21)00188-8

Bridging the human resource gap in surgical and anesthesia care in low-resource countries: a review of the task sharing literature
Ashengo T, Skeels A, Hurwitz EJH, et al. Hum Resour Health 2017; 15: 77

The specialist surgeon workforce in east, central and southern Africa: a situation analysis
O'Flynn E, Andrew J, Hutch A et al. World J Surg. 2016; 40(11): 2620-2627

Specialist surgical workforce - sub-Saharan Africa 2015
The World Bank. 

Surgical task-shifting in a low-resource setting: outcomes after major surgery performed by nonphysician clinicians in Tanzania
Beard JH, Oresanya LB, Akoko L, et al. World J Surg 2014; 38: 1398-1404

The health worker shortage in Africa: are enough physicians and nurses being trained?                                                            Kinfu H, Dal Poz MR, Mercer H et al.  B World Health Organ. 2009, 87: 225-230

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