Hopkins rod lens system
Nephroscopy for stones became popular in the 1970s. Initially, this involved inserting an instrument into the kidney during an open operation, to access calyceal stones which could not be felt readily through the renal substance.
It was only in the 1980s that true percutaneous nephroscopes were developed. The telescope lens is, of course, a Hopkins rod lens system and is angled (upper right) to allow side-viewing access into calyces which would not normally be accessible in a straight-forward viewing line. A "flexible" instrument guide (upper right) can be added for biopsy forceps or diathermy leads and the black disc (lower left) protects the eyepiece from contamination by the surgeon's face. Right-angled stone forceps are utilised to allow access to "difficult" calyces.
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