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A History of Urology:

Celsian Method (Apparatus Minor)

Only two instruments needed

Thompson's Lithotrite

Blind surgery for bladder stones

Bistuary Cache

For opening a perineal wound

Gourget

For dilating the perineal wound

Phillips' Whips

Graduated dilators for strictures

Oberlander Dilator

Similar to today's Otis

Kollmann Dilators

With expanding blades

Lister's Sounds

Lollipop handles & olive tips

Holt Dilator

Aggressive stricture treatment

Stones

The history of lithotomy

Urethral Disease

Currently out of print

John Blandy Thanksgiving

St Giles' Cripplegate

Prehistory

60000BC - 3200BC

Magic, spirits & herbs

The Prehistoric Era

60000BC - 3200BC

Ancient Egypt

3200BC

Bilharzia & stones

A Brief History of The Flush Toilet

3000BC - 2016

From Neolithic to modern times

Ancient India

2800BC

Vedas & urethral strictures

Ancient China

2100BC - 100BC

Re-balancing yin and yang

Mayan Medicine

1800BC - 900

Religion, ritual & science

Mesopotamia

1700BC

A history on cuneiforms

Ancient Greece

1000BC

Hippocrates & his oath

Roman Medicine

753BC - 554

Influenced by Europe & Asia

Arabic Medicine

600BC - 1258

Major work in ophthalmology

Ancient Israel

260BC - 100

Hebrew medicine & the Bible

Julius Caesar

100BC - 44BC

Roman general, statesman, Consul and author

Roman Catheter

1st Century AD

Double curved for males

The Dark Ages

476 - 1060

Still poorly understood

Medieval Europe

500 - 1500

Galen and the four "humors"

Imperial China

900 - 1800

Taoist & Confucian ideals

Transurethral Bladder Stone Treatment

936 - 1928

From Ammonius to present day lasers

Black Death

1348 - 1350

Killed 6 out of 10 Londoners

Marian Method (Apparatus Major)

1520

Incontinence, fistula & impotence

Elizabeth I

1533 - 1603

The Virgin Queen

High Approach

1561 - 1723

Cheselden's forte

17th Century

1600 - 1699

Harvey to van Leeuwenhoek

Lateral Method

1600

As used by Frère Jacques

Thomas Hollier

1609 - 1690

Skilled lithotomist who operated on Samuel Pepys

François Gigot de La Peyronie

1678 - 1747

Founder of the French Royal Academy of Surgery

William Cheselden

1688 - 1752

Protagonist of suprapubic stone removal

18th Century

1700 - 1799

John Hunter & new hospitals

Peter Camper

1722 - 1789

The first comparative anatomist

Sir Thomas Molyneux Bt FRS

1723 - 1733

Professor of Physic in Dublin

George Cleghorn

1726 - 1789

Used quinine to treat malaria

Norfolk and Norwich Hospital

1771 - 2003

An early "stone" hospital

Heurteloup's Percussion Lithotrite

1793 - 1844

Hit it with a hammer ...

Silver Catheters

19th Century AD

For dilating urethral strictures

Thompson Catheters

19th Century AD

One of his many instruments

Hamilton Irvine Box

19th Century AD

Suprapubic drainage device

19th Century

1800 - 1899

"The age of agony"

Cystoscopy

1807

From candlelight to xenon & laser light

Charles Phillips

1811 - 1870

Belgian by birth but worked in Holland and France

Queen Victoria

1819 - 1901

Sir Henry Thompson

1820 - 1904

Extraordinary polymath and expert urethral stone surgeon

TURP (Transurethral resection of the prostate)

1830 - 1975

From Guthrie to HoLEP

Sir Francis Cruise

1834 - 1912

Performed the first successful endoscopic treatments

Interstitial Cystitis

1836

Bladder pain syndrome

Reginald Harrison

1837 - 1908

Expert in Bigelow's litholapaxy operation

Histoire de la Lithotritie

1839

Pioneer of barotrauma research

Arthur Fergusson McGill

1846 - 1890

Performed UK's first retropubic prostatectomy

Sir Peter Freyer

1852 - 1921

Popularised litholapaxy & transvesical prostatectomy

Frederick Swinford Edwards

1853 - 1939

Well known for his writings on rectal and urinary surgery

Maisonneuve Urethrotome

1855

Cuts strictures forward

Edwin Hurry Fenwick

1856 - 1944

One of the earliest adopters of the cystoscope

Edward Canny Ryall

1859 - 1934

Founder of All Saints Hospital

Joaquín María Albarrán y Domínguez

1860 - 1912

Cuban-born and nominated for a Nobel Prize in 1912

St Peter's Hospital for Stone London

1860 - 1992

Helped by an anonymous donation

Civiale Lithotrite

1860

With lockable jaws

Cruise Endoscope

1865

First successful endoscopic treatments

History of the Cystoscope

1865 - 2009

From Cruise to the present

Potain Aspirator

1869

Invented by a French Cardiologist

Dieulafoy Aspirator

1869

"A safe and practical method .... of tapping the bladder"

Hugh Hampton Young

1870 - 1945

Radical prostatectomist & "father of American urology"

Sir John Thomson-Walker

1871 - 1937

First urologist to perform retrograde ureterography

John Swift Joly

1876 - 1944

Irish-born surgeon with lifelong interest in stones

Edwin Beer

1876 - 1938

Pioneer in papillary bladder tumours

Frank Kidd

1878 - 1934

Co-founder of the British Journal of Urology in 1929